AP World History Flash cards (44)

Pre-Islam Arabia Nomadic peoples of Arabian Peninsula, Bedouins, were made of independent clans and tribes who engaged in bitter blood feuds with each other. They believed in a variety of Gods, with Allah being the main head god. They valued bravery, loyalty, and hospitality. By 600 CE, saw Allah was the main God and by some the only God and saw Allah as the same god as Jewish Yahweh and saw themselves as "sons of Abraham." - Exposure to other monotheistic religions. Very diverse due to proximity to Persia and Byzantine Empires and trade routes learn more. Mecca, Religious capital of Kaaba (prominent religious shrine in Arabia, which housed the representations of 360 deities and was a destination of religious pilgrimages). Controlled by Quarash tribe who collected taxes on traveling pilgrims. Very diverse due to pilgrimages. Muhammad Ibn Abdullah 570-632 CE Born in Mecca to Quraysh family who died when he was young. Worked as a shepherd and trader. Deeply troubled by religious corruption and inequalities in Mecca. Meditated and believed that he was Allah's messenger to the Arabs. Beginning in 610, had revelations over 22 years about Allah and this became the scriptures of Quran. Quran, Religious text of Islam. Recorded the revelations of Muhammad's meditations and conversations with God. States that Allah is only god - monotheistic. Draws heavily on Jewish and Christian traditions and monotheism. Muhammad is Allah's final prophet - the Seal of the Prophets. Why was Islam better than others in their mind? Believed that Jews wrongly conceived of themselves as uniquely "chosen people", Christians turned their prophet into a god, and Arabs were polytheistic - all of which were wrong and needed to be corrected in eyes of Muhammad and Islam. Umma A new and just community, bound by a common belief rather than by territory, language, or tribe. Requires submission to Allah. Submission is not just an individual or spiritual act, but the creation of a new society. This should replace tribal, ethnic, and racial identities. 5 Pillars of Islam 1. There is no god by Allah and Muhammad is the messenger of God. 2. Ritual prayer, performed 5 times a day including cleansing, bowing, kneeling and prostration to remind them they are living in the presence of God. 3. almsgiving - believers must give generously to the poor and to community. 4. Month of fasting - Ramadan - abstaining from food, drink, and sex from first light of day to sundown. 5. pilgrimage to Mecca, known as hajj. People from all over, all were white, and perform acts of islam. "6th Pillar" or Jihad Means "the struggle." Interior personal effort of each believer against greed and selfishness, a spiritual striving toward living a God-centered life. Lesser form means "jihad of sword." The quran promotes armed struggle against the forces of unbelief and evil, establishing Muslim rule, and defending umma from threats of infidel aggressors. Spread of Islam Muhammad received opposition from wealthy Mecca including Quraysh. Moved to Yathrib (now Madina) where he created his umma. A kind of super tribe that did not require anything other than faith to be a member - allowed rapid expansion of community - Muhammad is leader. Opposed by some Jewish communities, which Muhammad reacted strongly to by exiling, enslaving and killing them. Changed prayer direction from Jerusalem to Mecca. Spread with Muhammad's power and new Arab alliances with Muhammad. Aided by Muhammad's military pursuits, no professional clergy, no distinction between religious law and civil law (sharia). Sharia A religious law and civil law that developed over several centuries following Mohammad. Islam rules and regulates every aspect of life (both religious and non-religious). Hijra "The Journey" from the first migration of Mohammad and his people from Mecca to Medina. Summary of The Birth of New Religion Muhammad was born in Mecca. Disillusioned with greed, went to meditate. Believed he was last prophet of Allah and spoke for god. Through his revelations, he gained followers. He took his followers to Medina where he created a umma, a community of those who believe. He established the 5 pillars of islam. The religion spread rapidly throughout the Arab world. Conquest and Spread of Islam The spread of Islam was supported by the organization of Arab tribes, no longer performing small tribal raids, but organized together under umma and Islam, attacking and conquering neighboring kingdoms of Byzantine and Persia. Battle of Talas A Battle between China and Arab (Islamic) forces. Important because, through its defeat of Chinese forces, it stopped further Chinese expansion to the west and converted Asia's Turkic-speaking people to Islam. Conquest Supported by Merchants Wealthy merchants support Arab conquest

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this is really interesting....